Born in 1934, in the Shaimurzino Village, Chuvashia (USSR).
Started writing poetry in Chuvash in 1958. In 1953-1959,
studied in the Gorky Instiutute of Literature (Moscow).
Was acquainted with Boris Pasternak. Has been writing poetry
in Russian since 1960. Before Perestroika, was published
only in the West.